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Colman, Lucy.

Abolitionist and Women's Rights Autograph Album compiled by Lucy Colman and her daughter Gertrude with inscribed copy of Lucy Colman's Reminiscences.

Book

Colman, Lucy. Abolitionist and Women's Rights Autograph Album compiled by Colman and her daughter Gertrude.
8vo; 107 unprinted pages; black leather boards elaborately stamped in gilt and in blind; at the front panel, a bold interlace frame sets off a gilded vignette of an autograph album with a quill pen and inkwell surrounded by a laurel wreath; flower and vine motif at the spine with "Autographs" all in gilt; rear cover blindstamped with frame and cartouche; ends a bit worn, hinges tender but sound; one leaf has a small square excised from it, not affecting any signatures; generally attractive and in very good condition.
Together with:
Colman, Lucy. Reminiscences. Buffalo, N.Y.: H.L. Green, Publisher, 1891.
Narrow 8vo, 86pp; frontispiece portrait of Lucy N. Colman with tissue-guard; ex-library copy with "withdrawn" stamped in red below the authorial inscription; the library's blind embossed stamp at the title page; pencil notations at verso of title page; dark green cloth with blind rules at front and rear covers and "Reminiscences by Lucy N. Colman" in gilt at the front cover; edges burnished red; discreet repair with Japanese hinges to hinges; mild overall wear to binding; about very good.
First and only edition. Inscribed at a preliminary leaf, Mrs. Hannah L. Quinn, / with good wishes from / The Author.\ (with a flourish).
An autograph or commonplace book, first compiled by Gertrude Colman, the teenage daughter of anti-slavery and women's rights activist, Lucy N. Colman. Gertrude died in November 1862 while a student at the New England Woman's Medical College. Her mother continued to collect signatures and sentiments even as she continued to work with such notable women as Susan B. Anthony, Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. The 76 autographs, often with abolitionist or Union sentiments (as would be expected given the timeframe), date almost entirely from the 1860s, either in Washington, DC (where Lucy worked during the war) or Rochester (her longtime home), with a few from New York City. The signatures suggest the wide-ranging impact of the abolitionist movement, the significance of women within the movement and the close ties between abolitionist and women's rights leaders. Among the signatories are abolitionist/women's rights, military and political notables such as William Wells Brown, John Brown, Jr., Frederick Douglass and Ottilia Assing, Josephine Griffing, Gen. Oliver Howard, President Andrew Johnson, Wendell Phillips, Parker Pillsbury, President Abraham Lincoln, Jane Grey Swisshelm and Theodore Tilton.
Lucy Danforth Newhall Colman (1817-1906), antislavery and women's rights activist, teacher, lecturer and free thought advocate remains a shadowy and all but forgotten figure. Born in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, Lucy grew up questioning a God who allowed people to be chattels, religions that supported slavery, and ministers who deemed themselves morally superior to their flock. At 18 the young woman married, only to be widowed four years later when her husband died of consumption. In 1843 she married for a second time, and moved to Rochester, New York; two years later she bore her only child, Gertrude. Soon after, Colman began her work as an abolitionist in earnest. An accident killed her husband in 1852. Forced to seek work, she found teaching was one of the few occupations considered appropriate for women. She accepted a position for Rochester's sole school for African American children, located in the basement of an African American church. Appalled by the racism that segregated the children into a separate school, she convinced parents to enroll their children in neighborhood schools and the church to withdraw the space from city use. She succeeded in eliminating segregation (and her teaching position). Fellow teacher Susan B. Anthony obtained permission for a woman to speak at the State Convention of Teachers and asked Colman to be that woman. Colman accepted and used the occasion to deliver a fierce denunciation of corporal punishment. (Anthony obviously appreciated Colman's capabilities as a speaker. She recruited Colman in 1859 as a women right's lecturer. Though Anthony's signature does not appear in the album, those of two of the extended Anthony clan are present.) Colman decided to devote herself fulltime to the abolitionist cause and during the latter 1850s toured and lectured for the Western Anti-Slavery Society and the American Anti-Slavery Society in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, enduring primitive conditions that deterred less committed speakers. She worked closely with fellow abolitionists Amy and Isaac Post, sometimes traveling with Amy and staying with freed or escaped slaves. (Amy Post remained close to Lucy Colman throughout her life and provided the introduction to Colman's Reminiscences.) In 1860 she gave the autograph album to her 16-year old daughter Gertrude, later inscribing it, "Endeavor always to be worthy of [your] own respect. Your mother Lucy N. Colman. Rochester July 26th/'61" (p. 53). A few months later Gertrude died.
Frederick Douglass (ca. 1817-1895) performed the funeral service for the young woman. He had been among the early signers of the young woman's album, "The kindest and best wishes to Miss Gertrude from Frederick Douglass, Rochester NY April, 1861" (p. 7). Douglass' role in the anti-slavery movement is well known, but he was also an important women's rights advocate. Present at the 1848 Seneca Falls conference, Douglass concurred with Elizabeth Cady Stanton's resolution asking for woman suffrage; his support swayed Lucretia Mott and others reluctant to include the controversial resolution in their "Declaration of Sentiments." (It is impossible to overestimate the importance of Douglass' influence on this key decision, which would shape the American women's rights movement and inspire the English women's rights movement as well.) Beneath his signature is that of Ottilia Assing, a German woman who had been so moved by Douglass' first Narrative (and his portrait) she voyaged to the United States to seek him out, eventually becoming an intimate companion for some 25 years. Douglass credited her with helping him escape arrest for conspiracy in the John Brown raid on Harper's Ferry. She introduced Douglass to a number of European intelligentsia and translated and published the first German edition of his My Bondage and My Freedom. Historians and biographers have speculated on the precise nature of their relationship, which, however, remains elusive. (Documentary evidence is scarce in part because Assing, who committed suicide when it appeared her relationship with Douglass was at an end, asked his letters to her be destroyed, a request which was honored. Assing signed Gertrude's album three months after Douglass; it would appear she deliberately sought to place her autograph in close proximity to Douglass'.) A recent scholarly study by Maria Diedrich, Love Across Color Lines, meticulously recounts the known facts of the relationship and reproduces this album page at the book's front cover. In addition to Frederick Douglass, three of his children also signed Gertrude's album: Rosa Douglass, his first child by his wife Anna: "Rosa Douglass - To her friend Gerty Colman, Rochester July 22nd 1861" (p. 49); and his two sons "Truly Your Friend, Louis H. Douglass Sargt. Major 54th M.V." (the "Glory" regiment) and Charles: "Chas. R. Douglass, Rochester, N.Y." (pp. 79 and 37 respectively). When the 54th Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers (Colored) was formed under the leadership of Major Robert Gould Shaw, Charles and Louis Douglass were the first two recruits from New York to enlist, Louis later participating in the assault on Fort Wagner.
William Wells Brown (1814-1884), antislavery lecturer, writer and historian, like Douglass, authored an important fugitive slave narrative. In 1854 he published the novel Clotel, an imagined life of Thomas Jefferson's slave daughter, the first novel published by an African American (and for this and other writings he has been dubbed "the father of African American Literature"). After the onset of the Civil War, Brown actively recruited black soldiers for Union forces. His penned sentiment is accordingly apposite: "They who would be Free, Themselves must strike the blow. Wm. Wells Brown. Rochester May 14th 1861" (p. 19).
Above Brown's signature and dated just four days earlier is the autograph of John Brown, Jr., Brown's oldest son and right-hand man: "The fear of death, alone makes Slavery possible. John Brown, Jr. Rochester May 10th, 1861." Brown was a close partner in his father's guerilla activities and acted as liaison between his father and African American anti-slavery leaders in coordinating support for the Harper's Ferry raid. The two autographs were penned within a few short weeks of the April attack and subsequent surrender of Fort Sumter; both sentiments mirror the North's militant reaction to the attack and Lincoln's subsequent call for troops. (p. 19)
Among the abolitionist and women's rights supporters who have signed the album is Wendell Phillips (1811-1884), who, after William Lloyd Garrison was one of the most prominent and radical of white abolitionists. He also supported the nascent women's rights movement, attending the 1851 national convention in Worcester. His eloquent address to the convention became a staple of women's rights literature. With the end of the Civil War and the enactment of full emancipation, Wendell Phillips, Josephine Griffing [see below] and others organized the Equal Rights Association, which sought full rights for African Americans and women. He wrote: "Count that day lost, / Whose low descending Sun / Sees at they head, / No worthy action done - / John Brown's favorite lines - / Wendell Philllips / for Miss Coleman" (p. 43).
Another leading abolitionist and women's rights activist who signed the album is Parker Pillsbury (1809-1898). Pillsbury authored The Acts Of The Anti-Slavery Apostles, an important firsthand account of the abolitionist movement. After the Civil War, he confirmed his support of the women's rights movement by becoming an editor of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's woman suffrage newspaper The Revolution. His autograph reads: "Gertrude, / On her Birth Day. / Sept. 13 - 1860 / From her sincere friend / Parker Pillsbury" (p. 5).
Theodore Tilton's autograph appears at p. 83: "If an ignorant white man / can vote, why not an in- /telligent negro? Theodore Tilton / Feb. 26. 1865." Theodore Tilton (1835-1907), a prominent antislavery activist and woman suffrage supporter, served as Managing Editor of The Independent and for many years was a close associate of Henry Ward Beecher. He attended the first National Woman's Rights Convention after the Civil War and gave a well-received address. Eventually Tilton became a part of two infamous love triangles, one with women's rights agitator Victoria Woodhull (as her lover) and the other (as the wronged husband) with Henry Ward Beecher. The latter blossomed into a full-blown scandal when Woodhull printed an account of the purported affair between Mrs. Tilton and the high-profile minister in her newspaper Woodhull & Claflin's Weekly. (The scandal, played out in the newspapers over months with charges and countercharges, effectively ended the careers of both Woodhull and Tilton in the United States.)
Following the death of Gertrude in 1862, Colman moved to Washington, D.C. and became matron of the National Colored Orphan Asylum. There she worked alongside Harriet Tubman to improve the abysmal standards of the orphanage. Shortly thereafter she was appointed Superintendent of all "colored schools" in Georgetown. She also worked in Civil War hospitals and in the Freedman's Village of Washington where she met Sojourner Truth and secured for her a joint audience with President Abraham Lincoln. During the meeting, the President signed Sojourner Truth's autograph album. Mrs. Colman made no such request as her daughter already had obtained a slip of paper, imprinted "Executive Mansion/Washington" and dated January 16, 1862, on which he had written "My Dear Young Friends / If you care to have my autograph, here / it is. / A. Lincoln" (p. 29). Moreover, Colman thought the President had shown Sojourner Truth scant respect by keeping the women waiting for nearly three hours, addressing Truth as "aunty" and declaring that only political exigency had prompted him to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. (See Reminiscences for Colman's full account of the meeting). Also present are the autographs of William Slade, Lincoln's black usher and his daughter, Josephine Slade, seamstress to Mrs. Lincoln (pp. 95 and 18 respectively). William Slade hosted one of the first of Frederick Douglass' "100 Anti-Slavery Conventions" in Middlebury, VT in 1843 and later attempted to persuade Douglass, at President Andrew Johnson's behest, to accept the appointment as first head of the Freedman's Bureau. (It was through Josephine Slade that Colman was able to obtain the appointment with President Johnson.) Later Colman arranged for Sojourner Truth to meet Lincoln's successor, President Andrew Johnson (p. 9). Colman considered his reception far more courteous and so collected his signature among her worthies.  
Colman's work in the Freedman's Village brought her into close association with abolitionist and women's rights worker Josephine Griffing (1814-1872). Griffing, like Lucy Colman and William Wells Brown, had worked with the Western Anti-Slavery Association. When Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton spearheaded a drive for full emancipation forming the Women's National Loyal League in 1863, Lucy Colman gave a spirited address at the founding convention and Josephine Griffing lectured on the league's behalf collecting literally thousands of signatures for the women's antislavery petitions. As committed as she was to woman suffrage, in the end, Griffing's great work was with emancipated slaves. She understood that they would need more than good wishes; they needed education, training, help finding new jobs, assistance relocating out of the South, and for those disabled, orphaned and aged, welfare. In many respects, she was the driving spirit of the Freedman's Bureau, though her role vis à vis the Bureau was often strained. After the Bureau was discontinued in 1869, Griffing worked with the National Freedman's Relief Association of the District of Columbia. (NAW gives an affecting portrait of Griffing's home "often surrounded by a hundred or more of the ragged and destitute objects of her care." NAW II, p. 93.) That same year she followed Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony out of the Equal Rights Association to form the National Woman Suffrage Association. Her autograph, "Your Friend and / coworker / Josephine Griffing," is at p. 91.
Lucy Colman's residence in the capitol also brought her into contact with abolitionist, journalist and women's rights advocate Jane Grey Swisshelm (1815-1884). In 1848 Swisshelm established the first of three newspapers she published in the course of her career, the Saturday Visiter (after Dr. Johnson's spelling). The paper carried Swisshelm's able and witty attacks on slavery which quickly were taken up by abolitionists and given national circulation. Horace Greeley hired her to send reports from Washington, thus making her the first official female Washington correspondent. Swisshelm later moved to Minnesota and started the St. Cloud Visiter. Her support of abolition made her press a target; political opponents smashed the press, its printing press and type, and then filed a libel suit against her. Undaunted, she continued to publish as the St. Cloud Democrat and to lecture on women's rights and the abolition of slavery, addressing the Minnesota House in 1860 and the state Senate in 1862. After the onset of the Civil War, Swisshelm went to Washington, becoming a nurse in hospitals in and around the capital. She inscribed, "speak unto the Children of Israel / That they go forward." Jane G. Swisshelm / Dec. 11th 1864 / Washington, D.C." (p. 45).
Other signatures reflect Colman's involvement in the Freedman's Village and, later, the Freedman's Bureau (see below). The collecting of autographs was a popular 19th century pastime. This album is unique for the intertwining circles it reflects of key reform movements and figures of the period. It includes the signatures and thoughts of important abolitionists who saw the attainment of their goal: the emancipation and enfranchisement of African American slaves. For suffragists, their success lay many decades off. While some are not as familiar to us as perhaps they should be, many of the men and women who signed Lucy Colman's album are among those who selflessly dedicated themselves to causes larger than themselves. They may not have won fame, but they helped to change their world.
Below is an alphabetical listing of the autographs:
Dorothea Albrecht, p. 31 and Jo. Albrecht, p. 27: unidentified.
W.G. Anthony and Dan Anthony, p. 51: abolitionists and nephews of Susan B. Anthony.
Ottilia Assing, p. 7: German-born abolitionist and Frederick Douglass supporter and intimate.
Ben Barker, p. 105: unidentified.
William Wells Brown, p. 19: (1816-1884) African American writer and abolitionist leader. Wrote: Narrative of William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself (1847); Three Years in Europe, or Places I have Seen and People I have Met (1852), the first travel book authored by an African American; Clotel, or The President's Daughter (1853), the first full-length novel written by an African American; The Escape, or A Leap for Freedom (1858), the first drama by an African American; The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements (1863) and The Negro in the American Rebellion (1867), the latter the first military history of the African American in the United States. He worked for nine years as a steamboatman on Lake Erie and a conductor for the Underground Railroad in Buffalo, New York; he also lectured for the Western Anti-Slavery Society.
John Brown, Jr., p. 19: son and lieutenant of his father, John Brown, Sr.
L. Emmelie Butts, p. 23: a Rochester school friend, daughter of Isaac Butts, vituperative editor of the (Rochester) Union and Advertiser during the war years.
George P. Carse, p. 73: captain, "For as much as you have done it unto the least of these you have done it unto me." Superintendent of the Freedmen in Virginia. Carse had the difficult task of balancing the many personalities who supported the same general causes but often were at odds over methods. He supported Colman's work in the Freedman's Village despite the vocal opposition of the American Tract Society, a religious group which oversaw the Village's school.
Anna L. Clark, p. 89: unidentified, but probably Lucy Colman's sister (Mrs. Clark).
James G. Clark: a musician, composer of popular music and abolitionist supporter. [Miss Anthony describes in The Life And Work Of Susan B. Anthony making a women's rights address at an agricultural fair, standing on a lumber wagon, using Clark's melodeon as her desk, with the singer and abolitionist holding am umbrella over her head to keep off the rain.]
Gertrude Colman, p. 5: daughter of Lucy N. Colman, student at New England Woman's
 Medical College when she died at age 17.
E. Burke Collins: a Rochester native in the 21st New York Cavalry, survived the war but was accidentally shot and killed in 1879. Emma Augusta Sharkey, a Rochester schoolgirl during the war, took the pseudonym "Mrs. E. Burke Collins" when she published several novels after his death.
Lucy N. Colman, p. 53: abolitionist and women's rights activist and religious reformer. Abolished segregation from the Rochester schools, lectured for the Western Anti-Slavery Society and the American Anti-Slavery Society and for women's rights at the behest of Susan B. Anthony. Matron of the National Colored Orphan Asylum in Washington, DC.; subsequently, Superintendent of all schools in the district. Worked in hospitals during the Civil War, joined Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the formation of the Women's National Loyal League, speaking at the founding convention. Friend and colleague of Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and Josephine Griffing; became involved in the Freedman's Village and the Freedman's Bureau. Colman served on the Executive Committee of the National Woman Suffrage Association (1878) and was appointed to the Committee on Resolutions at the convention. Much of Colman's post-war work focused on women and religion; she was a significant figure in the Free Thought movement, vigorously opposing the secondary role assigned women by organized churches. Colman wrote her memoirs, Reminiscences, in 1891.
Thomas "Boston" Corbett, p. 28: tipped-in autograph opposite tipped-in autograph of Abraham Lincoln. Union soldier who shot John Wilkes Booth, signed "Boston Corbett - Avenger of Abraham Lincoln." Corbett, a hatter by profession who had bouts of insanity before the Civil War (brought on by his occupational use of mercury), became increasingly unstable and dangerous after the war and disappeared after escaping from an insane asylum. Though he enjoyed the notoriety of his famous action, his signature is scarce and valuable.
William Denton, p. 77: an active reformer and abolitionist in the Waterloo, New York area.
Frederick Douglass, p. 7: (1818-1895), orator, journalist, editor, autobiographer, abolitionist leader and women's rights activist, author of the most influential African American text of his era, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself (1845). Launched his famous anti-slavery newspaper the North Star in 1847 in which he published his novella The Heroic Slave (1853. Later appointed to a series of distinguished offices: federal marshal and recorder of deeds for the District of Columbia, president of the Freedman's Bureau Bank, consul to Haiti and chargé d'affaires for the Dominican Republic. His final memoir, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, was first published in 1881 and expanded in 1892.
Charles R., p. 37; Louis H., p. 79; and Rosa Douglas, p. 49: children of Frederick Douglass.
John Dudley, p. 99: Rochester friend who later became a business partner of the sons of prominent Rochester abolitionists Isaac and Amy Post.
John Eaton, p. 35: (1829-1906) , educator. Eaton organized many Freedmen's camps during the Civil War and later President Grant appointed him the Commissioner of Education in which office he served from 1870 to 1886.
A.R. Eastman, p. 25: a manager of Eastman's Commercial College and the Uncle of George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak.
Andrew Twombly Foss, p. 47: a Baptist minister and in the 1850s an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. See pp. 31 and 32 of Reminiscences.
Josephine Griffing, p. 91: (1814-1872), reformer, abolitionist and women's rights activist. She acted as an agent of the Western Anti-Slavery Society (1851-1855). She was a founding member of the Ohio Woman's Rights Association and in 1853 she was elected its president. She traveled and wrote for both causes. A supporter of Anthony and Stanton's Women's National Loyal League, she lectured on its behalf from 1863-1865, obtaining thousands of signatures for their massive emancipation petition. In 1865 she began her work with freedman, acting as a general agent for the National Freedman's Relief Association. History Of Woman Suffrage credited Griffing with creating the Freedman's Bureau and while historians discount so complete a role, she was a significant force in the Bureau. She helped to found the American Equal Rights Association in 1866 and served as the first vice president. She also founded and served as first president of the Universal Franchise Association in the District of Columbia in 1867 and in 1869 joined with Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in their National Woman Suffrage Association, and served as the corresponding secretary.
F.M. Hartwell, p. 87: unidentified.
O[liver] O[tis] Howard, p. 34: (1830-1909), Union soldier and Commissioner of the Freedman's Bureau (1865-1872). Instrumental in the founding of Howard University and served as its president 1869-1874. He received the Medal of Honor for valor at Fair Oaks; however, his leadership during the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg has been the subject of controversy.
M.F. Huby, p. 94: unidentified.
Andrew Johnson, p. 9: (1808-1875), controversial 17th President of the United States.
Mattie L. Jones, p. 81 and William D. Jones, p. 61: unidentified.
G.M. Joy, pp. 41 and 75: unidentified. H.C. Layersole, p. 106: unidentified.
Abraham Lincoln, p. 29: (1809-1865), 16th President of the United States; issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.
J.O. Linkletter, p. 92: unidentified.
J. Horace McQuire, p. 11: Rochester high school friend who at the time was employed in Frederick Douglass' printing office where he, along with Rose and Frederick Douglass, Jr. set type for the North Star, and which, along with Douglass' house, was Rochester's central station on the Underground Railroad. There McGuire was the only witness to a meeting between Douglass and John Brown a few months before Harper's Ferry, during which Douglass tried to dissuade Brown from his course.
Charles De Berard Mills, p. 85: active Syracuse abolitionist and a leading figure in the suffraist group, the Friends of Human Progress, which derived from annual Quaker meetings of the 1830s and 1840s. Father of Harried May Mills, an important figure in the 19th century women's rights campaign.
John S. Mitchell, p. 67: unidentified, but possibly the "Mr. Mitchell of West Junius" referred to in Reminiscences at 81, a Free Thinking colleague.
Philip D. Moore: also active in the Friends of Human Progress.
Ezekiel Wilson Mundy, p. 55.: perhaps a Rochester friend; in time, he became the city librarian of Syracuse (his signature, dated 1870, is one of the last penned in the album).
Mary C. Ottoway, pp. 57 and 97: b. 1843, unidentified, but likely a Rochester friend of Gerty's.
Edward A. Perkins, p. 45: unidentified.
Wendell Phillips, p. 43: (1811-1884), lawyer, orator and reformer. Prominent abolitionist and supporter of William Lloyd Garrison; early supporter of the women's rights movement.
Parker Pillsbury, p. 5: (1809-1898), reformer, Garrisonian abolitionist and ardent advocate of women's rights.
E.D. Purine, p. 21: unidentified.
S.A. Reed, p. 35: unidentified.
Morton W. Rundel, p. 3: Rochester friend of the Colman family, a student at Eastman's College; several photographs of him are held in the Rochester Library.
John Schofield, p. 34: (1831-1906) Union Major General whose strategic pincer maneuver, executed in concert with William Tecumsah Sherman, stamped out the final resistance in North Carolina, essentially dashing the last hopes of the Confederacy and ensuring the end of the war.
Served as confidential agent for the U.S. State Department in France (1865-1866); commanded the Department of the Potomac and briefly served as U.S. secretary of war in 1868. His recommendations led to the acquisition of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii as a naval base. Served as Superintendent at West Point, 1876-1881.
W.F. Sherman, p. 67: unidentified
Josephine L. Slade, p. 18: dressmaker's helper to Mrs. Lincoln and daughter of the White House usher, William Slade. Slade arranged the meeting of Lucy Colman and Sojourner Truth with President Andrew Johnson.
William Slade, p. 95: usher to President Abraham Lincoln; colleague of Frederick Douglass and abolitionist activist, leader of Washington, D.C.'s African American community.
Mary G. Smith, p. 65: unidentified; Minnie A. Spinning, p. 71: unidentified (both Rochester friends likely).
Jane G. Swisshelm, p. 45: (1815-1884): author, editor, journalist and teacher. Anti-slavery and women's rights reformer. Founded and edited the Pittsburgh Saturday Visiter (1847-1857), the St. Cloud Visiter and the Reconstructionist. As the Washington correspondent for Horace Greeley's the New York Tribune she insisted on and won admittance to Senate galleries for women. She published her memoirs, Half a Century, in 1880.
Isabel H. Syron, p. 59: unidentified.
Theodore Tilton, p. 83: (1835-1907), journalist. Prominent in the anti-slavery movement and early women's rights supporter. He was a close associate of Henry Ward Beecher and edited The Independent. During the 1870s, though a lover of Victoria Woodhull, he brought suit against the minister. The trial resulted in a hung jury. The scandal ruined Tilton's career and reputation in the United States; he immigrated to Paris, France and never returned.
Frederick Tompkins, p. 103: the Secretary of the Freedman's Aid Society of London.
Julia A. Wilbur, p. 15: a Quaker teacher and secretary of the Rochester Ladies Anti-Slavery Society (which provided important financial support to Frederick Douglass), was sent by the Society to Virginia to work directly with freedmen's education and relief programs. The journals of her wartime activities are now in the fuekd ford University library. Also a women's rights supporter and member of the National Woman Suffrage Association; at the 1884 NWSA convention she was named an auditor and continued active in the organization until her death.
W.S. White, p. 13: unidentified.
Daniel Wycoff, p. 37: guardian of poor house inmates in the Rochester area.
S.D. Wyeth, 35: p. unidentified
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